Cooking foods at the temperature found to be most desirable for them will give most satisfactory results. The Fahrenheit scale is used in all the recipes as indicated by the abbreviation F.
Temperatures for Candies:
Candy temperatures are most easily obtained by the use of a thermometer. Cold water tests which compare favorably with the temperature tests are obtained by dropping ½ teaspoon boiling syrup into ½ cup cold water. The following are examples of temperatures and corresponding water tests:
|Item||Temperature||Cold Water Stage|
|Fudge, Fondant||234º – 238º F.||Soft Ball|
|Divinity, Caramels||245º – 248º F.||Firm Ball|
|Taffy||265º – 270º F.||Hard Ball|
|Buttter-Scotch||275º – 280º F.||Soft Crack|
|Brittle Candy||285º – 290º F.||Hard Crack|
|Caramelized Sugar||310º – 320º F.||Caramel Stage|
Temperatures Used in Deep Fat Cooking:
Select a fat with a high smoking point, and one which will not absorb food flavors. Fill a straight-sided, flat bottomed kettle with melted fat to the depth of 2 1/3″ to 3″. Place the food in a wire basket.
After having been used, the fat, if dark, may be clarified by slowly cooking in it 6 to 8 thin slices of pared raw potatoes. When the fat ceases to bubble and the potatoes are well browned, strain and store in a cool place.
Temperatures for deep fat frying may be determined by a thermometer or by browning a 1″ cube of bread in the hot fat. The temperature of the fat should be kept uniform during the cooking process. This may be accomplished by frying small quantities at one immersion. The following are examples of temperatures and corresponding bread cube tests:
|Item||Thermometer||Bread Cubes Brown in:|
|Doughnuts and Fritters||360º – 365º F.||60 seconds|
|Croquettes||365º – 380º F.||40 seconds|
|French Fried Potatoes||380º – 390º F.||20 seconds|
Temperatures for oven cooking may be determined with an oven thermometer, automatic oven temperature control, or by noting the time required for browning to a golden brown 1 teaspoon of flour which has been lightly dusted over the bottom of a pie pan.
|Oven Type||Temperature||Flour Dusting Method|
|Very Slow Oven||250º – 300º F.||5 minutes|
|Slow Oven||300º – 350º F.||4 minutes|
|Moderate Oven||350º – 400º F.||3 ½ minutes|
|Hot Oven||400º – 450º F.||1 ¼ minutes|
|Very Hot Oven||450º – 550º F.||½ minute|
A Griddle or Waffle Iron is sufficiently hot for baking griddle cakes or waffles if the Griddle/Waffle Iron will snap when cold water is dropped on it. Drop the water on the Griddle/Waffle Iron when it is smoking hot.
Information taken from the 1938 The Household Searchlight Recipe Book